Volcano View – MILEAGE Project – Map of Kilauea Gas Emissions – West Hawaii Today

During a volcanic eruption, large volcanic gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are released into the atmosphere. But even in the midst of volcanic eruptions, small amounts of the same gases continue to escape and can provide important clues about the current state of the volcano and the tower. But to measure them, you must first identify where the gas is coming from.

Gas emissions tests have been performed before, but you never know the full calculation at once. And no one has done it since the 2018 explosion and collapse – at least until this year.

In the summer of 2021, USS Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) scientists conducted a detailed study of the surface emissions and the edge gas to understand the current emissions. The results are comparable to previous surveys; If differences are found, You could point out that the Killawa Conference has changed the major plumbing system due to the fall of 2018.

Volcanic gas measurements can be performed using a multi-layered gas device, and then record CO2, SO2 and H2S, as well as water vapor, per million ppm.

Depending on the location and type of data required, these MultiGAS devices can be mounted on a demand area, attached to a bag frame, or installed on UAS (unmanned aerial systems).

For the gas mapping in the Kilauea Calendar this summer, two MultiGAS devices were loaded on bag frames and moved around the calendar as HVO scientists continued to collect data. These lines covered a distance of 25 to 50 meters (75-150 feet) and covered the fall of the Caldera rim, the floor of the Caldera and during the 2018 explosion.

Although the survey covered the entire floor of the calendar, there were still clues as to where the best location was. Gas emissions often accumulate in cracks or pits in the ground, making it easier to carry gas to the surface. Limestone can be seen in various parts of the Caldera floor and in the Hawaiian Sulfur National Park in the Hawakulamun (Sulfur Banks) and Steam Vents areas. Such gas pipes are often good indicators of gas storage.

As gases rise from the tower below, they meet and change with the surrounding rocks, resulting in color changes. Searching for this altered rock is another way to identify potential gas emissions.

The latter laboratory analyzes collected gas samples from areas with high CO2 concentrations. A large, plastic needle was used to collect the sample, which was then transferred to a gas foil bag. Most of the samples were collected during the blockade because that area showed the highest CO2 levels.

Chemical analysis of various isotopes of CO2 from these samples shows where the magma releases these gases, and whether it is a new, deep tower, or an old tower that has been stored for some time in the kiln plumbing system.

While the Caldera Floor Map is now complete, the Halemau pit and floor have not yet been mapped and there are many visible gas venues. These areas are not within walking distance, so the next step is to use UAS-installed MultiGAS to measure gases with a National Park Service license.

HVO scientists are using the data gathered this summer to produce a new gas emission map at Kilawe Caldera. The map will be the key to determining whether the tunnels from the camera to the deep gas lines have been changed by crashes. This net gas emission map also shows a critical measure of gas sources and attention that can be controlled for deficient behavior. Ability to detect changes may allow HVO to better prepare for future outbreaks.

Volcano Time is a weekly article and activity update written by USGS Hawaii Volcano Observers Scientists and Associates.

Leave a Comment