By Robert Hazen, PhD, George Mason University
19th-century scientists have discovered that entropy can be measured in terms of energy. German scientist Rudolph Julius Emmanuel Claussius developed the concept of entropy to distort the natural tendency of systems.
The concept of Claudius Entropy
Rudolph Julius Emmanuel Clausios In 1850 he published the first clear statement of the two laws of thermodynamics. In this first statement, which does not take any form of mathematical formula, Claudius mentions the tendency of systems to become more and more distorted.
Claudius recognized the need for a new, rather abstract physical variable in order to be numerically useful to the second law. He called this variable “intrope” – a word derived from the Greek word transformation. He only described intropemia in terms of temperature and humidity.
In fact, entropy is the ratio of heat energy to heat. This definition has important applications in chemistry and engineering where heat works. But for most people, this definition of entropy — heat-dissipated — is an unknown concept.
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A study of Claussius steam engines
Claudius studied steam engines and observed their behavior. He realized that the temperature distribution must remain constant or increase. It will never diminish.
In other words, in any heat engine, the heat dissipated by the cooling water temperature is always greater than or equal to the heat dissipated by the heat exchanger. Therefore, closed system introization cannot be reduced. Entropy may be constant, or it may increase.
Each element has the same amount of entropy as the amount of energy. One can measure it and give it a unit. In principle, a person can measure a system’s introprotection by measuring its temperature and total thermal energy, even if it is not a simple matter. The two laws of thermodynamics can be summed up in a nutshell: As energy is constant, entropy tends to increase.
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Entropy in energy terms
One question arises – why should things go awry? One can try to understand this by considering the nature of the atom. Everything is made up of tiny particles, atoms, that form chemical bonds, solids, liquids, and gas structures that are everywhere.
Thus, entropy can be identified by its properties, especially the energy of the individual’s atoms, the kinetic energy. Some atoms have a lot of kinetic energy, so the heat is dissipated. Over time, the kinetic energy of the atoms is released on average and as a result heat is dissipated. It is the physical process of vibrating atoms that continue to collide with each other in gas, liquid, or solid conditions. Accumulated heat, therefore, expands.
Measurement of the order of any system
It can be said that the order of any system can be measured according to the order of the atoms. For example, a coal with a high carbon-carbon bond has a high concentration of atoms. In particular, the bond between carbon and hydrogen is the strongest bond. One can burn coal and disrupt those bonds. The content will be more distorted. When that thermal energy is released, the intrope increases.
Meanwhile, one can talk about the formation of atoms in gas. Gas atoms come in different temperatures and speeds. For example, there are two reservoirs of water at different temperatures — one is very hot and one is cold.
What if the two are mixed? Dividing the gas into two different peoples is a more commanding state. When the two gases are mixed, the hot atoms in the gaseous state begin to collide with the cold atoms, and the temperature rises as the average velocity of the gas atoms rises. So the intrope, the distortion of the system increases.
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The concept of Entropy by Ludwig Boltzman
The definition of entropy was used by Austrian physicist Ledwig Bolzmann at the end of the 19th century to measure the level of anxiety. A.D. Born in Vienna in 1844, Boltzman studied at the University of Vienna and spent most of his career as a professor of physics.
Boltman used Probability Theory to show that for any atomic structure, the mathematical value of entropy is related to the number of different ways in which a specific structure can be obtained. Entropy, in fact, is the logarithm of the number of configurations, that is, the mathematical form.
To illustrate what Boltzman meant, take six to six balls. Three are yellow, three are orange. Think of all the different ways to organize these balls. There were 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 different events, a total of 720 different ways to line up six balls.
If one goes into math, he actually changes in these 36 ways, he can rearrange the balls, so there is still a sequence of three yellows and three oranges. That’s 36 out of 720 different ways, so if one person throws all six balls in a row, one in 20 only follows three yellows and three oranges. All other events are different.
Common questions about Entropy in power terms
Rudolph Julius Immanuel Claussius explained Introduction Only at room temperature.
In the context Kinetic energy Atoms, heat is dissipated because some atoms of kinetic energy collide with atoms of low kinetic energy. Over time, the kinetic energy of atoms is released on average and as a result, heat is dissipated.
Ludwig Bolzman used probability theory to show the mathematical value of any atomic structure. Introduction It depends on the number of different ways you can get a specific configuration.