as if Robert M. Sad, PhD, George Mason University
Chemical bonding occurs between all chemicals. The current item table lists all known elements. Dmitry Mendelev, who was acquainted with 63 different chemicals, was a great discovery. Mendelev and his contemporaries knew that they were far more numerous than the basic elements. They thought that there should be some principle.
Mendeleev’s great strategy for setting up a seasonal table
Dmitry Mendelev observed the metaphors in chemical elements, as many of his contemporaries, because the groups of elements showed similar behavior. He made hypotheses and predictions about 63 elements, which completed the current table of points. That was his strategy.
For example, alkaline metals – lithium, sodium, potassium – all silver metals, all soft, all very responsive. In fact, they all react strongly to water. We had halogen – fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine – these substances are not all metals. In fact, they are gases and liquids, very destructive, very responsive.
All halogens react with alkali metals in 1: 1 ratios. And there are other groups, such as alkaline earth metals, such as magnesium and calcium and barium – again, they have very similar chemical properties, and are very different from other known elements.
This is a copy of the video series The joy of science. Watch now on Wondrium.
Great victory of the season table
Mendelev was caught in these patterns, and he was arrested because the elements had different weights. By weight gain, hydrogen is the simplest component, and you can order nutrients from left to right. Therefore, as they gain weight, they are arranged in vertical columns with elements from left to right.
This brings to the table the great seasonal ingredients. And the current chart was very good, because it put the known elements in order, but it also predicted that all good scientific hypotheses would be expected. He foretells the unseen elements, and here those elements are found in a few years. This seasonal table was a great victory.
Magic numbers and chemical bonding
The fact is, the elements do not occur in isolation in nature. You do not get single individual atoms. They are obtained by a combination of atoms. For example, water h2Oh, by combining two hydrogen atoms with one atom of oxygen.
In a 1: 2 combination, you have a glass window containing primarily silicon and oxygen.2. And even the air you breathe is composed of atoms — oxygen, oh2: Two oxygen atoms are closely connected. And 80 percent of the atmosphere contains nitrogen, N2: Two nitrogen atoms stick together.
So why should this be? Well, one of the reasons they are so stable electrons, the magical number of electrons you see – two electrons or 10 electrons or 18 or 36, and so on. These are the magic numbers of electrons, and they are related to the electron shells in Mendeleev’s current table.
The first row has two components, so the filled shell has two electrons. The next row has 8 electrons, so when you add 2 you get 8 10, the magic number when you have two filled shells. Third row 8 more electrons lead you to 18. So, 2, 10 and 18 are these magic numbers.
Learn more because some types of atoms are particularly unstable and responsive.
Why does chemical bonding occur?
The key to understanding why atoms come together is energy. All natural systems are prone to low energy levels. Imagine a steep, steep valley, and this is an example of electrons. Imagine that you are driving along the valley floor, and there are huge rocks just sitting on the side of the road.
Although they are on the floor of the valley; They descend on a very low energy level. They are located on the edge of the valley, depressed and peaks, and some rocks are located on the edge of the valley, up to the top.
Now those rocks have much more power. If there is an earthquake or someone comes and pushes them, they fall down, and as they do when they go down to the bottom of the valley, they release their gravity by converting that into heat. Well, the electrons are very similar. The arrangement of atomic electrons is really similar to that of rocks in the valley.
Learn more about the incomparable ability of carbon bonds.
When atoms try to reach the magic number
Now, if we go to the top of the table and look at the top right hand column, you will see immovable gases. These outer shells are completely filled with atoms — helium at 2, neon at 10, argon at 18, and so on. These elements are extremely stable because they are similar to rocks in the valley floor. They do not want electrons. They do not want to lose electrons.
Well, now think of the small number of atoms in that magical number. Halogens, like fluorine and chlorine, and bromine have very few electrons, 9 instead of 10, 17 instead of 18. As a result, when they do, a large amount of energy is released, sometimes by flash, sometimes by explosion.
Similarly, one can see all the alkaline earth and alkaline metals. For example, the first column with lithium, sodium, and potassium – these are the elements that need to be strongly removed. Sodium has 11 electrons; He wants 10. He has potassium 19, he wants to have 18. And so, these substances try to get rid of electrons.
Common questions about Mendellev’s great work and the causes of chemical bonding
Magical numbers are related to the electron shells filled in the current table. Of Chemical bonding What happens between atoms is based entirely on magic numbers.
Inactive shells have all the magic numbers (2, 10, 18, etc.) in the electron shells. The outer shell of this atom is completely filled, so it has no tendency to do anything Chemical bonding With other atoms.
The outer shells of halogens are not completely filled with electrons, leading to some Chemical bonding With other atoms. Halogens try hard to find those lost electrons, and as a result they are very active.