**as if **Robert M. Hazen, Ph.D.**, **George Mason University

## The study of motion on the balance of quantum jumps is called quantum mechanics. The phenomena of daily speeds, daily masses, and daily scales may not all be related to atomic scales, and so at the beginning of the 20th century physicists had to keep an open mind.

### Max Planck and the concept of quantum mechanics

The first strange fact that people receive about the universe on an atomic scale is that each measure is measured in different parts called quantum. Quantum’s idea was first proposed by the German physicist Max Planck, who lived from 1858 to 1947.

Plank’s work illustrates and illustrates this remarkable transition from the realm of ancient physics in the late 10th century to the early 20th century to modern physics.

He began his career in the realm of ancient physics. He studied electricity, magnetism and thermodynamics. But at the beginning of the 20th century, he described the basic principles of quantum mechanics, and he described a whole new way of describing the physical world. In the mid-20’s, Plank became a professor at Kell University, where he gave various advanced courses.

In other words, he applied his mathematical skills to theoretical physics. At that time, theoretical physics was considered a secondary science. Despite significant contributions, it was truly marginalized. This field was dominated by some Jewish mathematicians, and it has been suggested by some scientific historians.

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### How classical theory relates to power

A.D. Plank research was an important part of the photovoltaic work completed in 1900. Planck began his work with the so-called “black body” of electromagnetic radiation. A suitable black body eliminates all electromagnetic radiation.

But the laws of thermodynamics require that energy be restored and that energy be returned to the environment. It was the diversity of this radiation that worried physicists in the late 19th century^{Th} Century. The classical theory that sees energy as a continuum cannot describe the observed tissue. Estimates the amount of energy that can explode at very short wavelengths.

So short and short wavelengths mean high and high power. And even though the total amount of radiation in those short wavelengths is less, this will be more energy coming out of the black body than going in. However, classical theory seems to suggest that these wavelengths must be very long.

### How Plank solved the problem of ancient theory

Planck suggested that Plank Power come to contract to solve the problem. Now, this is just a few decades before Niels Bor and the atomic model began. So this is the first idea that this power comes in different stages. The power is related to different wavelengths, different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

The energy carried by an electromagnetic wave is constantly emitted at wave frequencies. And that constant is now known as Plank’s constant. So the equation is equal to the energy h – Plank’s constant – come times, or frequency. With this formula, Planck was able to relate the appearance of the black body to all objects for the first time, but it required that extraordinary numerical power estimate, large wavelengths.

Modern physicists were ready to accept this strange and abstract idea. Of course, in everyday life, energy does not evolve in stages, but in series. In other words, it does not occur in quantum.

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### Albert Einstein on the effect of photoelectricity

Albert Einstein was able to strengthen Planck’s position. This In 1905, Einstein published one of the four greatest papers ever published. This light was a paper on photo-electrical effects that could emit electrons from certain materials. This is the result of the use of batteries and solar panels.

It is also used in solar panels. Sometimes photovoltaic materials come in small panels; Sometimes they become very big. They are located on the roofs or on the sidewalks with solar panels. And this is what happens: Photoelectric material captures a photo, and that removes electrons from the material so that it flows like an electric current.

If a person shines a bright light on a photovoltaic device, the electrons are removed, and in practice they become electric current. Interestingly, the velocities of these dissipated electrons are independent of the intensity of light. Power is the same as accelerating mass time, so if the compressed energy is added to something, the speed also increases.

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### The relationship between light intensity and electron velocity

Therefore, the idea of more light intensity for electrons to travel at higher speeds is not true. As the intensity of light reflected on photovoltaic increases, the electron velocity remains the same; Only the number of electrons increases. But if one uses a shorter wavelength, the speed increases.

For example, blue light is shorter and more powerful than red light, and the speed of electrons increases according to blue light. Therefore, it is not the wavelength that determines the speed of the electrons expelled from that photovoltaic – it is the intensity of the light.

Einstein accepted Planck’s post, that is, light waves carry energy, h times nu. And he showed that the kinetic energy of electrons is directly related to the plank energy in light.

### Common questions about movements and the measurement of quantum jumps

**Q: Who was Max Planck?**Max Planck was the first German physicist and mathematician to explore Quantum. He made great strides in classical physics and explained the laws of law Quantum mechanics At the beginning of the 20th century.

**Q: How did Max Planck solve the problem of classical theory of sustainable energy?**Max Planck was used Quantum mechanics To solve the problem of the ancient concept of power as a continuum. According to him, energy flows continuously and at different stages.

**Q: How does photovoltaic material work to produce electric current?**When photovoltaic material captures photons, it generates electricity, creating an electric current. according to Quantum mechanics, Shorter wavelengths increase the speed of electrons, and that leads to more electrical current.