Introduction to the second law of thermodynamics

By Robert M. Hazen, PhD, George Mason University

The first law of thermodynamics is remarkable because energy can be changed from one form to another many times, and the total energy is constant. However, the second law of thermodynamics imposes strict limits on the use of force. In fact, the second law of thermodynamics states that there is a universal tendency to dissipate heat.

Image of two chemical flash water (hot and cold).
According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat transfer is a universal phenomenon. (Image: Bells 7 / Shutterstock)

The first and second law of thermodynamics

The first law states that the total amount of energy is constant, but it does not say how energy can be changed from one form to another. There are many limitations to these transmissions in everyday life. For example, a hot soup bowl will cool down automatically, but a cold soup bowl will not suddenly heat up.

Gasoline burns in the car to produce heat and fatigue, but the other way it never happens. And again, this does not violate the first law of thermodynamics, because the total amount of energy in various forms remains constant. For example, objects fall under gravity and release heat when they hit the ground, and the other way never happens, which means that objects do not fall.

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The difference between temperature and humidity

The most recognizable statement of the second law comes from the courtesy of Lord Kelvin, the British physicist William Thompson. According to Kelvin, heat spreads evenly and evenly. This statement contains two related concepts – heat and heat – which have very limited scientific meanings.

Heat is a quantity of energy and a unit of measurement. The temperature of an object can be measured in jars or calories. But temperature is a relative term. If the temperature does not rise suddenly, two things are at the same temperature. If the heat suddenly flows from the heater to the cooler, two items are at different temperatures.

Temperature is measured with a thermometer. And each temperature, each thermometer, requires two multiplicative reference points, such as cooling and boiling water points. Also, it changes for certain physical properties, for example, the amount of mercury at a certain temperature. Therefore, the thermometer has some mercury at the bottom, and as the mercury cools, the volume changes and moves up and down. And that temperature is recorded.

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Theory of thermal capacity

Aluminum image being tested for thermal capacity.
The water temperature is higher than that of copper. (Image: Craig Walton / Shutterstock)

The difference between temperature and humidity leads to another important property, and that is heat capacity. Each material has the capacity to store heat energy, but some materials are much better than others. Think of putting one pound of copper and one pound of water on the same burners. Which one warms up faster? Tradition has it that the metal heats up very quickly, and this is because the metals do not store much heat.

But water is a very efficient energy storage, so water has a very high thermal capacity. In fact, heat capacity is the amount of energy that a substance can hold, and water is very efficient, which means a lot to the climate. An important measure of thermal capacity is the “specific temperature”, a scientific term.

How heat moves in the second law of thermodynamics

There are three different ways to move heat. Transmission, transmission and radiation. An indicator is the transfer of heat from an atom to an atom in a solid. Imagine a spoon in hot water, and the handle warms up very quickly. That’s the process of transferring heat from one spoon to the other. Observation is a very slow process because the temperature remains constant.

The second method of heat transfer is called convection, in which a whole body of fluid is transferred through heat, gas or liquid. This includes boiling water, ocean waves, or wind. These are good examples of moving heat.

There is a third way of moving heat, radiation. That heat, in the form of light energy, or heat, moves 186,000 miles per second through a vacuum. The sun emits energy, and this is the way to transmit that 93 million miles of thermal energy through space.

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Various methods to reduce heat transfer

Example of different temperature movements.
The sun shines through space. (Image: VectorMine / Shutterstock)

One of the key technologies that scientists are looking for is ways to prevent or reduce heat transfer. Humans, and nature, have devised many different ways to reduce heat transfer. For example, animals living in cold climates use a variety of sources.

They develop hair, or feathers. The hair or feathers reduce the efficiency of heat transfer by convention. If small air pockets are caught, the bicycle cannot continue. Therefore, the way heat is lost from an object is limited to a very slow process. And how those blocking materials work, in clothing, animals, and so on.

Common questions about the introduction of the second law of thermodynamics

Q: What is heat capacity?

Thermal capacity It is the amount of energy a substance can hold. A useful thermometer is called a ‘specific temperature’.

Q: What are the thermal activities according to the second law of thermodynamics?

according to Of The second law of thermodynamics, There are three types of heat transfer: conduction (transfer of heat from an atom to an atom), convection (transfer of heat through the entire body of liquid, gas or liquid movement) and radiation (heat transfer in the form of light energy or heat energy).

Q: What is the difference between temperature and humidity?

Of The second law of thermodynamics But there are two related concepts: heat and heat. Heat is a quantity of energy and a unit of measurement that can be measured in grams or calories. But temperature is a relative term. Temperature is measured with a thermometer.

Keep reading
The path of science from ancient times to modern times
Scientific Method – Process, Innovation, and Confusion
The social framework of a scientific organization

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