HYidroggen has It has been controversial since its inception Hendenberg, In 1937, filled with flames. Stimulators Gas is a small carbon miracle, which can illuminate cars and homes. They hope that the hydrogen economy will reshape the energy map. Note that skeptics have been in tears since the 1970s when several hydrogen investment drivers were exposed to gas shortages. The fact is, the truth is between them. Hydrogen technologies could save 10 percent of today’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
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Hydrogen is not a basic source of energy like oil or coal. It is regarded as a power carrier, similar to electricity and as a battery storage device. Must produce. Low-carbon energy sources such as renewable energy and nuclear energy can be used to identify water (h2O) In the body of oxygen and hydrogen. This is inefficient and expensive, but costs are declining. Hydrogen can be made from fossil fuels, but it does generate a lot of pollution unless it is combined with carbon-based and controlled technologies. Hydrogen is combustible and massive compared to many other fuels. The unchanging laws of thermodynamics mean that converting the first energy into hydrogen and then hydrogen into energy becomes waste.
All of this explains the difficult story of the gas. Oil rigs in the 1970’s led to research into hydrogen technologies, but they did not go far enough. A.D. In the 1980s, the Soviet Union even flew a hydrogen-powered passenger plane: its first flight lasted only 21 minutes.
Today, climate change is creating another wave of interest. More than 350 large projects are underway and the total investment is expected to increase. By 2030, it could reach $ 500 billion. Bank Morgan Stanley estimates that annual hydrogen sales could reach $ 600bn by 2050. This includes $ 150 billion in sales today, mainly from industrial processes, including fertilizer production. India will soon bid for hydrogen and Chile will bid for public lands. More than a dozen countries, including Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and South Korea, have national hydrogen plans.
In the midst of happiness, it is important to be clear about what hydrogen can and cannot do. Japanese and South Korean companies want to sell cars using hydrogen fuel cells, but battery cars are approximately twice as energy efficient. Some European countries hope for hydrogen to enter homes, but heat pumps are more efficient and some pipes cannot withstand the gas. Some large energy companies and petrochemical companies want to use natural gas to produce hydrogen without the associated carbon, but that does not eliminate emissions.
Instead, hydrogen can be used in specialized markets, including complex chemical processes and high temperatures that are difficult to reach. Steel companies, which account for about 8% of the world’s emissions, rely on hydrogen, an inexhaustible supply of renewable energy, in a process known as direct reduction. In August, the Swedish Union sold the world’s first green metal in this way.
The other hut is for commercial transportation, especially for trips outside the battery range. Hydrogen trucks can quickly recharge their battery-powered competitors, winning more space and longer territory. Cummins, an American company, is betting on them. Hydrogen fuels can also be useful in aviation and shipping. A French company, Alstom, operates hydrogen-powered vehicles on European tracks.
Finally, hydrogen can be used as a material for mass storage and transportation. Renewable grid fights when the wind dies or darkens. Batteries can help, but if renewable energy is converted into hydrogen, it can be stored for a long time and converted to electricity on demand. A power plant in Utah plans to store gas in caves in California. Sunny and windy places with no transmission lines can export clean energy like hydrogen. Australia, Chile, and Morocco hope to send “sunlight into the world.”
When a lot of money goes into hydrogen, the list can be expanded. Most of the work is done by the private sector, but governments can make their own efforts. One task is to simplify green washing: Hydrogen made from fossil fuels without high-quality carbon does not help the weather. New laws are needed to measure and describe the life cycle emissions caused by hydrogen production, and these require international agreement as they are traded across borders.
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It should also reduce the need for infrastructure duplication and encourage centers to meet different hydrogen users. These have already appeared in Humberside in Britain and Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Hydrogen has limitations, but it can play an important role in generating clean energy. ■
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This article appeared in the section entitled “Hydrogen Hope and Appreciation.”