Dust and gas in prototype discs

False color, sub-millimeter wavelength around a star IM loop showing two rings of gas and dust. For the first time, astronomers used multi-wavelength data on the vertical altitudes of the two dust and gas bodies in this dust and gas, but at different distances from the star, but sometimes not always the same lightning profile. Credit K. Oberg, CfA, et al. Alma (NRAO / ESO / NAOJ); For Saxton (NRAO / AUI / NSF)

Plants are formed as dust particles in a prototype disk grow into pebbles and then to planets. Because small particles of dust come in contact with gas (by means of a drag), the gas in the prototype discs affects the distribution of small grains and therefore the growth of planets. Astronomers who are trying to explore the impact of dust-gas connections on the planet’s development are interested in studying disk thickness (“height”) and distance from the star. In most cases, the disk is out, in most cases the central star controls the number of systems. By measuring the volume of gases and small particles of dust individually, astronomers can study basic disk properties such as gas-to-dust ratio and turbulence in a disk.


CFA astronomers Richard Teag and David Wilner and a team of colleagues completed the first direct comparison of the vertical altitude of gas and dust. They simulated multi-dimensional observations from Alma, Hubble, and Gemini on the planetary disks for such measurements: the systems leaned toward the viewing line to provide some 3D viewing, for which parts are sufficient to measure carbon monoxide gas and dust, and Discs show multiple rings. The rings transmit the light and it is necessary to estimate the vertical heights for a small grain (the origin of the rings is uncertain, perhaps by planetary or ice-generated heat transfer).

Astronomers note that in two systems, about one hundred astronomical units of stellar gas and dust are connected to the same structure, but at a very distant point the dust particles are less vertical than CO gas. In the third system, the two bodies have the same shape at all distances. Scientists argue that a gas-to-dust ratio of more than 100 (the average value for Intercel) may explain the first two characteristics. The team also hopes that the vertical altitudes of gas and dust will not only be mass, age, or stellar, but will explain their dependence on future work.

Scientists warn that it is too early to summarize their conclusions in just three examples. You will also notice that the methods of making the rings are uncertain and there may be unintended consequences in these systems. For example, these disks are relatively large, and smaller, more common types may work differently. At the very least, the effects of chaos and dust are uncertain. These early results, however, show the feasibility of the technologies. Further observations and modeling should be able to identify the disks of other systems and monitor the formation of the planet in more detail.


The creation of planets may begin earlier than previously thought


More info:
Evan A. Rich et al. Astrophysical Journal (2021). DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / abf92e

Presented by the Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysics Center

QuoteDust and gas in protoplane disks (2021, August 9) August 9, 2021 from https://phys.org/news/2021-08-gas-protoplanetary-disks.html

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