Chlorine Next: How Gene Stabilizes Solar Cells Atomic Balance

Dr. Afshan Jamshaid shows perovskit solar cells. A layer of perovskite is placed in the middle between other layers of solar cells. Credit Okinawa Graduate University of Science and Technology

A research team led by Professor Yabing Ki of the Department of Energy Materials and Surface Science at the Okinawa University of Science and Technology (OIS) in Japan has developed a new type of next-generation solar cell, a crystal material called a metal-halide perovskit.

Their findings are reported in the journal Energy and Environmental Science, Solved a long-standing mystery in the field of solar technology, shows how chlorine, which promotes energy and stability, is incorporated into perovskite materials.

In today’s world of pure, green energy, solar energy is an important way to escape climate change. And it is the iron-hydraulic perovskis that many researchers hope will one day cover or meet the silicon solar cells that dominate the market.

“Perovskis are cheaper, more efficient and more versatile than silicone,” says Dr. Ph.D. Jamshaid, a former PhD author. Student in the OIST Department of Energy and Floor Science.

Nowadays, however, Perovsky’s solar cells suffer from problems with efficiency, size, and stability. High temperatures, humidity, and ultraviolet radiation can damage the perovskite material, which explains how it can convert light energy into energy.

Over the past decade, researchers have focused on addressing these issues. One way to improve Perovsk’s solar cells is by using droplets – small traces of other chemicals that are added during the formation of Perovskite crystals. Doctors change the physical and chemical properties of the material, increasing the stability and efficiency of the solar system.

One of these, dextant, is chlorine, which prolongs the life of perovskite solar cells and improves energy efficiency. But to this day, we have been puzzled by how this dopant works.

Reflection time: Scientists reveal how the next gene, chlorine, stabilizes solar cells

The researchers used a perovskite mat to scan the chlorine-covered underground microscope. Dark depression takes the place of iodine (I) and shows the inclusion of chlorine in crystal lattice. Credit Okinawa Graduate University of Science and Technology

The research community had no idea why they were seeing these improvements. Once added, the researchers could not track the chlorine – they did not know if the chlorine had penetrated deep into the perovskite material, remained on the ground, or even left it. Materials during the manufacturing process, ”said Dr. Jamshaid. About 50% of the community believes there is chlorine, but the remaining 50% of the community does not.

In the course of the study, the research team ended the debate by creating thin films of iron-hydrogen peroxide, methylamine lead iodide, which was finally chlorinated. They used a magnifying glass to cut the surface of the Perovskite layer.

“We only found out that chlorine was really there,” said Dr. Jamshaid.

The team found that there were dark concerns not seen in pure methylammonium led iodide perovskite films.

Researchers at the University of Soco, China, such as Professor Wanjian and Dr. Zendong Guo, have suggested that these dark ions can be replaced by iodine, which does not bind easily to the perovskite crystal structure. .

The research team also noticed that these dark insights appeared in the Perovskit film around the grain boundaries.

The Perovskite layer is not a single crystal layer, but is made up of many different crystal grains. It is because of these cracks in the so-called grain boundaries that perovskite is inherently unstable.

Reflection time: Scientists reveal how the next gene, chlorine, stabilizes solar cells

When chlorine was incorporated into the Perovski crystal structure, the surface of the Perovski layer was disturbed. This causes differences in altitude between chlorine and iodine due to low chlorine levels. Credit Okinawa Graduate University of Science and Technology

“The ions here are very slow to bind, so most damage from UV rays, temperature, or humidity occurs at these grains,” says Dr. Jamshaid.

The team suspects that the presence of chlorine around these grains may reduce the number of defects in the wound and contribute to greater stability and efficiency.

Significantly, when researchers changed chlorin levels in the Perovsk film, the structure and electron properties of the material also changed.

During the short storage period, the team was unable to detect any chlorine on the surface of the Perovski material. And over a long period of storage, chlorine created an additional layer of ions on top of Perovskit, which significantly altered electronic properties.

The researchers were able to develop a medium storage time that beat the sweetness – good chlorine concentration – around 14.8%. This concentration gave the perovskite material a high degree of stability.

The next step for the research team is to produce a complete solar cell with a layer of perovskite sprayed on this optimal chlorine concentration.

“Such basic studies are very important – they can help engineers cut the best production process without much trial and error,” said Dr. Jamshaid. Understanding how doctors improve the content can lead to new chemical compounds that can work better.

Fluoroethylamine engineering improves the efficiency of perovskite solar cells for effective passage

More info:
Athanomic scale for improved surface stability of afshan jamside et al. Energy and Environmental Science (2021). DOI: 10.1039 / D1EE01084K

Presented by the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology

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