Furnaces and cooling towers on the Capital Metal Campus in western Beijing emit toxic fumes. Today, the 860-hectare park, which has been transformed into a tourist attraction to commemorate China’s economic miracle, is nothing short of unique. Chicken cafes and bookstores sit in the middle of broken pipes and stairs – a clean industrial vibe that makes selfies a popular background.
Capital Steel, also known as Shogang, began moving its operations from the campus to neighboring Hebei County. At the 2005 Summer Olympics, the government removed dozens of pollutants from Beijing to ensure the blue sky. Capital Steel alone eliminates 18,000 tons of air pollution a year, and 20% of the hazardous particles give the city the worst air quality in the world.
Hebei, the new home of Capital Steel, is home to Tangshan, the world’s largest steel mill. He also inherited Beijing’s air pollution. Although the capital is no longer in the 20 most polluted cities in China, Tangshan compiles the list every year.
“It is easy for every city to make a contribution to China’s political and cultural center in Beijing,” said Tangshan, 43. Environmental inequality is probably the last thing people worry about after so many inequalities there, from job opportunities to education to health care.
In order to make rich urban dwellers happier, it has long been a convenient way to move poor cities from low-income cities to low-income areas. And in order to speed up the late industrial revolution, China brought in the richest or lowest paid industries in the world.
Now, President Xi Jinping’s promise to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2060 across the country means that every province must find a way to reduce pollution. It also means that local authorities must first consider regional equality in local policies.
For decades, coal-rich provinces have kept the air clean for themselves, and cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Hennessen have exported energy to stimulate metro growth. According to a study by Hebe Medical University IV, the morale of Hebei lung cancer tripled from 1970 to 2013. This time it was higher than the national average.
Kui’s father died of lung cancer 20 years ago, and his mother became ill this year. Kui criticizes the cement factory a few hundred yards away. “We think air pollution is just a price to pay,” he said. If you were not born in Beijing, you are not eligible to apply.
As top officials work on how to achieve China’s carbon-neutrality target, the key question is what time limits will be set for different regions to achieve maximum emissions. Most of the revenue comes from services and high-tech industries, such as Beijing. The capital reached its highest emissions in 2012 and will be zero by the middle of the century. But in the coal industry, poor districts, such as chemicals and cement production, have to go through painful transitions.
As part of the 2015 Paris Agreement, China’s international debate is a microcosm. The signatories agreed that rich nations, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, should make a list that included China, more than any other developing country, after decades of emissions.
In some ways, the goal of 2060 is “a version of China’s domestic Paris agreement,” said Kin Yan, a commentator. In order for states to have “common but different responsibilities”, China must apply the same principle in international climate work. Cities such as Beijing must set carbon-neutrality deadlines in advance to buy time for others.
Some districts have already expressed concern about ensuring a fair transition.
Inner Mongolia has produced a quarter of China’s coal for the past five years and is the country’s largest energy producer. Officials argue that China has a role to play in driving China’s economy, and the region’s emissions are inevitable. She suggested that her top economic planners should not be held responsible for emissions from projects approved by the central government and export to other parts of China.
Who will replace the losses of poor regions where resources are dug up and burned, the environment is destroyed, and people abandon their industries? Wang Shiyun, founder of Climate Solutions for Non-Profit Asian People in the Region. Cities that have long benefited from other sacrifices must do more and faster.
China is running out of space within the border to move pollution industries, and the future is moving in two different ways.
For one thing, the cycle of dirty factories moving from rich to poor continues only at international borders. Chinese companies have shifted inefficient coal-fired power plants and iron ore mines to poor countries such as Cambodia, and some Belt and Road-initiated investments will allow China to export pollution and share in heavy industry profits.
At the same time, companies are experimenting with ways to keep domestic factories clean. Although the internal Mongolian economy has been dependent on coal for years, leaders are trying to plan for the future by using green wind and solar resources to export green hydrogen to other provinces. And major steel producers have announced plans for large green hydrogen projects to replace coal.
How successful they are will ultimately determine the legacy of the Capital Steel Campus – whether it be a beacon for the poor, or a cruel reminder that they will never reach.
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