An analysis of 2,000 galaxies using MeerKat radio telescope reveals new insights

The galaxies — huge volumes of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems — are a fundamental part of our universe. Understanding how they were created and developed in space is one of the greatest challenges of modern astronomy.

There are a few reasons. First, the number of galaxies – astronomers, there are an estimated 200 billion galaxies in the world. Second, the enormous size and age of these galaxies. They are between 100 million and 10 billion years old, with an estimated 3,000 to 300,000 light years. One light year is 9.46 x 10¹² km – obviously, the galaxies are huge and ancient.

However, galaxies are not entirely mysterious. Technology allows astronomers to study and analyze in more detail than ever before. Our new study is used to analyze more than 2,000 galaxies from the powerful MeerKAT radio telescope in South Africa. MeerKAT is the most emotional radio telescope in the Southern Hemisphere until it ends.

Our findings suggest that in the galaxies we have analyzed, their evolutionary process may have lost momentum with cosmic electrons. The energy is not easily lost – it cannot be. Instead, as electrons shrink, their energy is converted to electromagnetic emissions. These emissions are among the prophetic signs taken by Mercury after crossing the boundaries of the galaxy and crossing space distances.

These discoveries help us to better understand the nature of these galaxies, and in general, the creation and evolution of galaxies in general – including our galaxy, Milky Way, which is currently undergoing a similar process. This is not a stressful process; It is only what scientists want to understand better.

By combining the data

Our study was called statistical analysis. Various astrophysic phenomena produce electromagnetic waves at different wavelengths, including radio, visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, and X-rays. Therefore, it is important to be able to combine different perspectives into a wide-angle lens. This is what statistical analysis allows.

We have chosen 2,094 galaxies to move stars, which means they are strong and young: in space-time-scales. This is an ideal model for studying the way galaxies grow and their key features in their formation and evolution.

The relationship between the number of galaxies (X-axis) and the different radio speeds (Y-axis) of radio frequency. Each symbol represents an individual galaxy. The iconic galaxy is a space telescope from NASA / Isa Hubble. T is the time when light travels toward us from these galaxies. Image created by Fangxia An (IDIA / UWC).

The distances between these galaxies are so great that it takes about 1 to 11 billion years for the fastest messenger in the universe to reach them. Thus, the galaxies we see today reflect an estimated 1 to 11 billion years ago. They are at different stages of evolution.

Read more: The discovery of two new giant radio galaxies gives new insights into the universe

Next, we study the basic physical characteristics of these distant galaxies by combining the new observations from MeerKAT with existing observation data from other telescopes. MeerKAT data was collected as part of the MeerKAT International GHz Tiered Extragalactic Exploration (MIGHTEE) project for about 20 hours. This is an exploration of the evolution of the galaxies. MeerKAT is one of the priority projects of the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory.

Key findings

By combining 2,094 galaxies with visible, infrared and radio emissions, the study measured how large, how active, and how different the radio waves, as well as some other basic physical properties, can be seen. We then linked radio emissions to the physical properties of these galaxies.

The difference in radio frequency at different radio speeds is related to the number of galaxies. On average, the larger galaxies show the greatest difference in radio frequency intensity at different radio frequencies. On average, the larger a galaxy, the greater the difference.

Further quantitative analysis shows that this statistical trend coincides with the gradual decline of cosmic radiation electrons – a process that accompanies these galaxies at different stages of evolution.The conversation

Fangxia An, Postgraduate Researcher, Institute of Interstate Astronomy

This article has been republished The conversation Under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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